The Hall Effect is an important principle in science. The effect shows that a semiconductor or conductor that has a current flowing through it in one direction was brought into contact perpendicular with a magnetic field it was possible to measure voltage at right angles to the current path. The Hall Effect is a result of interaction between charged particles, such as electrons, with other fields, such as electrical or magnetic fields.
The Hall Effect occurs because of the nature of the current that is in the conductor. The current has a number of different carriers for a charge, including ions and electrons, and sometimes holes. If there is a magnetic field there, but it is not parallel to the moving charges, the charges will experience a different effect called the Lorentz force. When introduced to a perpendicular component, the charges will act differently and will not follow a straight path. Instead, they will have a curved path between collisions, and this means that those charges will actually accumulate on one face of the material.
The opposite charges are then going to be on the opposite side of the material. This will result in a disproportionate charge distribution. This can create an electrical field that stops or slows the passage of charges, thus providing a steady electrical potential – as long as there is some charge flow. The discovery of the Hall Effect threw some people into confusion, as it was so much different from what anyone has seen or theorized before.
The Hall Effect can be quite helpful for those who are in need of measuring the carrier density or the magnetic field. It’s easier to differentiate between the negative and positive charges because they take different positions.
The Hall Effect is important because it was the first time anyone was able to prove that the currents that pass through metals are actually carried by electrons rather than protons.